Schwartz, D. L., & Hartman, K. (2007). It is not television anymore: Designing digital video for learning and assessment. In Goldman, R., Pea, R., Barron, B., & Derry, S.J. (Eds.), Video research in learning science (pp. 349-366). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Schwartz and Hartman explored the use of digital videos in the classroom. The focus was on using designed video to teach and to assess learning. Because of the importance of choosing appropriate topics and teaching these in a way that highlights how students will use the information they are being taught, the authors went into great detail concerning learning outcomes. They divided these outcomes into four broad categories: engaging, saying, doing, and seeing. An explanation of each category was given and explained in regards to learning targets, assessments and genres. In order to provide a more thorough description of these specific areas, STAR.Legacy which was a multimedia shell used with different types of students including pre-service teachers, for example. The teachers viewed videos and then added additional information in the form of videos to be used for assessment as well as to inform future participants in the program. The authors concluded the article by stressing the importance of digital videos in the digital era,
The authors of the study spent a great deal of time and energy explaining the categories dedicated to learning outcomes. Besides describing the types of outcomes, they then applied them to a specific task. I can see the need for this; however, the categories seem very basic and perhaps meant for pre-service teachers. In addition, the information on digital video seems to be dated. With the popularity of YouTube, people can create a variety of videos, including instructional videos, using their smartphones. More and more people rely on digital videos than ever before to find information or to just waste time.
As I was reading this article, it did make me think about how I use video in the classroom and online. I do use short video clips in all classes that I teach, and I rarely use entire videos. I find that the shorter the video, the better. If I play longer videos, students seem to stop paying attention and are distracted. However, I don’t know what the optimum length for a video should be. Besides playing videos in the classroom, I also upload videos online for a variety of reasons. From short videos explaining more difficult concepts to videos with embedded questions, I am aware of a wide use for different types of videos. I do keep in mind why I am posting the videos that I do for students to use and also when I require students to view the videos. Sometimes I post videos to introduce concepts so that I can work with the students on the concepts in class while other times I use videos to review more difficult concepts that I have already taught in class but for which some students need further review. I do not post videos to waste time. Maybe that is why I felt that the learning outcomes were common sense. I do think about these things, but I have never formally written down what I consider when developing and assessing learning.