Mishra, P., & Koehler, M.J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for integrating technology in teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.
In this article, Mishara and Koehler built on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) by Shulman and added technology to the mix in order to develop what they called Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK). They go into great detail explaining PCK and why TPCK is a natural next step when discussing what factors (content, pedagogy, and technology) teachers must consider when planning as they factors are interconnected in a multitude of ways. Teachers must be willing to change, adapt, and add to all three of these in ways that will, in the end, be of benefit to their students’ learning. In order to do that, teachers must be trained to do so. Traditional teacher training programs do not prepare teachers to plan and use technology when teaching in the same ways that teachers are prepared to interconnect content and pedagogy. This issue needs to be addressed so teachers are trained to incorporate technology as easily when planning lessons as content and pedagogy are intertwined. Learning by design was discussed and illustrated as a way to simulate the types of skills in an ill-structured domain that teachers need to use to be successful. The skills the students were working with were in the areas of content, pedagogy, and technology. The authors concluded the article by concluding with the importance of the TPCK framework by highlighting its ability to describe, analyze, to infer about teacher knowledge.
TPCK is not a framework without support, nor one that was developed overnight.The list of references provided by the authors in support of the statements made in this article is extensive. As stated by the authors, this program’s framework was in development for five years, but I would say, that it really is longer than that due to the fact that PCK has been around since the 1980s. The extensive explanations and examples given support the need for teachers to think of the how when it comes to integrating technology. As Mishra and Koehler show through the three examples given in the section describing learning by design, teachers will not integrate technology unless they are taught how to do this. The authors not only give explain how to do this, but they also explain how they did it.
With the use of technology in our everyday life becoming more predominant, using technology in the classroom seems to be a logical step. However, thinking about how to use technology effectively when planning lessons is not second nature for all teachers. I agree with this article that it is something that must be incorporated into teacher training programs. Teachers need to learn how to use technology and how to incorporate it effectively with content and pedagogy. It is very similar to the way that some children interact with technology. As discussed by Shapiro and Niederhauser (2004), some students are cue dependent readers. Thes students are good at finding specific information, but when it comes to using it to compile research or to infer, it is difficult for them to do. I believe it may be the same for some teachers. They are very good using technology, but when it comes to using technology to teach pedagogically appropriate content, they do not know how to use technology in that way. These teachers need to become more like the self-regulated readers as mentioned in the article by Shapiro and Niederhauser. These self-regulated readers were able to extract information from text and were more independent and exploratory in their reading. Teachers who use technology need to be able to extract and use appropriate technology while also being more independent and exploratory in their use of effective technology in the classroom. It is something that all teachers can strive to do better, and something that can be taught or explored as described in the article by Mishra and Koehler in regards to learning by design. It just will not happen.
Shapiro, A., & Niederhauser, D. (2004). Learning from hypertext: Research issues and findings. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed), Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 605-620). New York: Macmillan.
Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1–22.